Not sure this product helped in my situation. Pups were getting stuck in the birth canal, this didn’t appear to make all okay, since she was really pushing as it was. She hated the taste for sure and threw it up. Being the middle of the night, we lost 2, saved 1, prior to getting to vets for c-section, in which was another in canal they lost and was able to save the additional 4. So all in all, in our situation we are not sure if it played any role at all since lost 3 total in the birth canal so I can’t say one way or another. But having to give a star rateing I will rate at a 2 or 3-midline since it really didn’t help my situation any but I can’t say totally it was due only to the product. But I would like to give a shoutout to Countryside Pet Supply! I have ordered from them in the past - always receive products in tact and fast shipping! Thank you Countryside!